Simplified Design Of Wood Structures Pdf Free |WORK|
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Simplified Design of Wood Structures 6th Edition is the standard guide to structural design with wood. The current edition has been updated to include current design practices, standards and consideration of new wood products. Coverage includes the LRFD method of structural design in addition to the ASD method, expanded treatment of wood products besides sawn lumber, and with more examples and exercise problems, this edition stands as a valuable resource that no architect or builder should be without.
Water in freshly cut harvested wood is located within the cell wall and the cell lumen. Water found in the cell wall is called bound water, while water in the lumen is referred to as free water. (See Figure 1.) Free water is quite simple to remove; as soon as a tree is cut, free water begins to evaporate. The water in the cell wall is held by adsorption force which involves the attraction of water molecules to hydrogen bonding in cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.
The amount of water in wood is referred to as its moisture content (MC) and is defined as weight of the water present, expressed as a percentage of the moisture-free or oven dry weight of the wood. MC can be determined using various methods. Standard oven dry methods and electrical moisture meters are the most commonly used techniques. Chemical and distillation methods can also be used to determine moisture content of wood; however, they are usually confined to laboratory use.
There is a direct relationship between density of wood and shrinkage values. Species with higher density shrink more than those with lower density. Even though shrinkage values of many species are relatively low, they still play a significant role in designing wood structures. If shrinkage of wood is not taken into consideration during the design stages, certain construction defects such as warping, cracking, and buckling may easily occur, lowering the overall quality of the finished product.
When shrinkage values of different species are taken into design consideration, disadvantageous characteristics of wood can be handled properly. Figure 3 shows a hypothetical panel consisting of three species in both radial and tangential grain orientation.
Wood will shrink and swell as the result of moisture content change in the surrounding environment. Shrinkage of wood and wood products is one of the most important design parameters to consider in order to eliminate future defects in the product. As long as this inherent problem is properly treated, one of our most important renewable materials can be used efficiently for many applications without major problems.
Abstract:Seismic events have repeatedly highlighted the vulnerability of existing masonry buildings. Seismic retrofitting is frequently focused on improving the connection between walls and roof for ensuring behavior able to resist loads from any horizontal direction. This paper deals with the design of masonry ring-beams made of clay bricks reinforced by natural fibers. Various solutions to ensure a masonry building box-behavior are possible, but this is a good combination of both static and conservation requirements, as it allows the use of bio-composites and grouts. It is a relevant possible alternative to the traditional reinforced concrete ring-beams, which are proven to be very ineffective under earthquakes. A simplified model for designing clay brick beams reinforced by flax fibers is provided, and a comparison with customary and traditional floor/roof masonry ring-beams is carried out.Keywords: masonry buildings; earthquakes; retrofitting; ring-beams; flax fibers 2b1af7f3a8