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By definition, an inode is an index node. It serves as a unique identifier for a specific piece of metadata on a given filesystem. Each piece of metadata describes what we think of as a file. That's right, inodes operate on each filesystem, independent of the others. Where this gets confusing is when you realize that each inode is stored in a common table. In short, each filesystem mounted to your computer has its own inodes. An inode number may be used more than once but never by the same filesystem. The filesystem id combines with the inode number to create a unique identification label.
You can see from the command syntax and the output above that we ran df -i on filesystem /dev/sda1. There are a total of 524,288 inodes on this filesystem, with only 312 of them being used (about 1%).
Inodes are a great place to start if you are interested in learning more about filesystems and their structures. How the smallest units of data are labeled and indexed is important information to know. Some far more advanced operations can be done concerning inodes. For example, you can open an inode and read the contents on the file. This ability gives you an even deeper look into what metadata is stored there. Hopefully, this high-level look provides you with a baseline for your inode exploration.
Patchmgr runs on the \"driving system\", which is an Exadata Database Machine database server or a non-Exadata Database Machine system running Oracle Linux. This allows patchmgr to run from a central server to update multiple Exadata Database Machine systems. If patchmgr runs from an Exadata Database Machine database server, then that database server cannot be in the group file supplied to patchmgr.
To have a subsequent patchmgr execution use an altered component_list_file with different content, yet use the same logging directory as a prior patchmgr execution, use the -get log_dir option to obtain the logging directory. For example:
Assume the last cell failed to update and patchmgr will be re-run for the last cell only, using the same logging directory as the initial patchmgr execution. Use the -get log_dir option to obtain the logging directory using the original component_list_file.
Update the cell_group file to contain only the last cell, or use a different file that contains only the last cell. Specify the logging directory from the initial patchmgr execution so all logs for this group of cells are created in the same logging directory.
Patchmgr is run on the \"driving system\", which is an Exadata Database Machine database server or a non-Exadata Database Machine system running Oracle Linux. This allows patchmgr to run from a central server to update multiple Exadata Database Machine systems. If patchmgr is run from an Exadata Database Machine database server, then that database server cannot be in the file that lists the servers to patch.
When running patchmgr as a non-root user, use -log_dir to specify the absolute path to the log directory or use the keyword AUTO. If you specify AUTO, then patchmgr generates and sets the path to the log directory based on the directory patchmgr is launched from and the content of the nodes list file.
When running patchmgr as a non-root user, use -log_dir to specify the absolute path to the log directory or use the keyword AUTO. If you specify AUTO, then patchmgr generates and sets the path to the log directory based on the directory patchmgr is launched from and the content of the switch list file.
The patchmgr utility supports all hardware generations and Exadata storage server releases starting with 126.96.36.199.0, Exadata database servers running Oracle Virtual Server (dom0), and Exadata Virtual Machines (domU). The README files for the Oracle Exadata System Software updates specify whether the update itself is applicable for a particular hardware generation or not. The README is not shipped with dbserver.patch.zip but with the Oracle Exadata System Software update zip file.
If you are planning to update all Exadata database servers at once, it is a requirement to run the update utility from a Linux node outside the group of Exadata database servers being updated. This is because the update utility cannot update the Exadata database server it is currently running on. If you have no other systems running Oracle Linux or Oracle Solaris you can run the update utility from one of the Exadata database servers. In such cases be sure that the Exadata database server where the update utility is running is not listed in the dbs_group file you specify.
-log_dir specifies the absolute path to the log directory or the keyword autofor the utility to generate and set a path to the log directory that is based on the launch directory and content of nodes list file. If you want to make sure you are using the same log directory in later invocations where the list of Exadata database servers changes, use the -get log_dirflag to obtain the -log_dir location used on previous sessions. For example, if the following command:
If you are updating to release 188.8.131.52.0 or later, some packages on the Exadata database server become obsolete. While updating an Exadata database server, the update utility prints the exclude rpm list and obsolete rpm list in the log file.
To see which packages will become obsolete, review the contents of the obsolete.lst file. This file lists the packages defined to be obsolete by Exadata; these packages will be removed during the update when no action is taken. Packages manually added to this list are ignored. The following is a small sample of the obsolete.lst file:
To prevent a package listed in the obsolete.lst file from being removed, create the /etc/exadata/yum/exclusion.lst file, and put in the rpm name (wildcards are allowed) for the packages you want to keep. Place the /etc/exadata/yum/exclusion.lst file on all Exadata database servers where you want to use it.
After you have added an entry to the exclusion.lst file and re-run the update utility, the utility detects the exclusion list. The rpm packages on the exclusion list are still shown in the obsolete.lst file, but the listed packages in the exclusion.lst file will not be removed during the update.
Missing or not updating with exact dependencies is allowed and not a problem. If a system needs to be updated to the exact dependencies, then the conflict needs to be resolved first. Check the log file to see what packages conflict, remove them cautiously, and then re-run the update utility in prerequisite check mode.
For such cases, check the log file to determine what caused the dependencies to fail. After removing the failed dependencies, re-run the update utility to ensure that at least the minimum dependencies can be enforced.
This means running the update utility in backup-only mode before making any other (manual) changes to make the prerequisite / dependency check pass. The backup-only action backs up the active root and /boot file system only and is sufficient for rolling back (failed) updates.
For regular and virtualized Exadata database servers (domU), when the active system image is running from a file system on /dev/mapper/VGExaDb-LVDbSys1, the backup is made onto /dev/mapper/VGExaDb-LVDbSys2 (and vice versa). For Exadata database servers running dom0 with /dev/mapper/VGExaDb-LVDbSys2 as the active image, the backup goes to /dev/mapper/VGExaDb-LVDbSys3 (and vice versa).
While the backup is running, an LVM snapshot takes care of a consistent view of the file system. This LVM snapshot is maintained by the backup script and will always claim 1G of free VG space in VGExaDb.
The time it takes to run the backup depends on how busy the system is and on the size and type of data that is backed up. For example, backing up millions of small files can take significantly longer than backing up a couple of larger files. For this reason it is recommended to make sure directories holding database .aud files are not found on the root file system. Note the following:
If the downloaded patch has a name like p26875767_181100_Linux-x86-64.zip, then rename the file to 184.108.40.206.0.17018.patch.zip. Rename the ZIP file to use the release number and date string that is used for the directory name within the ZIP file. For example, when you unzip the patch p26875767_181100_Linux-x86-64.zip it extracts the directory patch_220.127.116.11.0.171018.
The update utility supports multiple sessions: you can run multiple updates concurrently from the same server starting with release 18.104.22.168.2 for Exadata storage servers and starting with release 22.214.171.124.0 for Exadata database servers. This means multiple racks can be updated concurrently from the same server. The update utility can be run as root or as a non-root user. By default the update utility assumes it should run as the root user. If however you want to enable multiple session support or run as a non-root user, then you need to use the -log_dir flag. The -log_dir flag supports two types of arguments: either a location on disk or the keyword auto. If you specify auto, the update utility creates its own log directory based on the storage servers listed in the cell_group file. This behavior causes the update utility to create new directories for each run of updates in the same cluster where one or more clusters were added or removed from the cell_group file. In order to obtain (and reuse) such a directory, the update utility provides the -get flag to determine the log directory for your session. The-get flag scans the working directory for directories in the log directory and returns the directory for your cell_group. For example, the following command:
If the system meets all of the preceding conditions, then Exadata storage servers running Oracle Linux may encounter a file system corruption that results in the root file system mounted as read-only after reboot. Follow the instructions in My Oracle Support note 1589868.1 before updating the storage servers and database servers.
If you must use a storage server as the patchmgr utility launch system, then do not use /opt/oracle as the staging area for the update. This causes the update to fail and corrupt the storage server. Use the /tmp directory as the staging area, that is, unzip the files for the update in /tmp. 153554b96e