The Missouri State professional education community believes that effective professional education programs are based on shared beliefs and values about schools, learning, and education that guide program development and instruction in knowledge, skills, and professionalism. The various content and specialty areas interpret and apply these guiding principles in accordance with their unique, specialized professional knowledge bases and standards. These guiding principles include foundations, content expertise, pedagogy, holism, experience, assessment/reflection, dispositions, research/inquiry, and collaboration/leadership that are common to all professional education programs. The underlying assumption of these guiding principles is that all members of the professional education community incorporate and demonstrate the principles of equity, diversity, justice, and inclusion throughout their programs.
Merrill's Principles of Instruction were founded by M. David Merrill, a noted educational researcher and teacher. There are five core principles that center on task-based learning. He suggests that truly effective learning experiences are rooted in problem-solving. Online learners must actively engage with the eLearning content in order to fully grasp the information and apply it in the real world. This involves a multi-phase process of activation, demonstration, integration and other essential components.
Are you familiar with other Merrill's Instructional Design theories? Read the article Instructional Design Models and Theories: The Component Display Theory to learn about its basic principles and how they can be applied to Instructional Design for eLearning.
Teaching is a complex, multifaceted activity, often requiring us as instructors to juggle multiple tasks and goals simultaneously and flexibly. The following small but powerful set of principles can make teaching both more effective and more efficient, by helping us create the conditions that support student learning and minimize the need for revising materials, content, and policies. While implementing these principles requires a commitment in time and effort, it often saves time and energy later on.
The teachers, being the focal figure in education, must be competent and knowledgeable in order to impart the knowledge they could give to their students. Good teaching is a very personal manner. Effective teaching is concerned with the student as a person and with his general development. The teacher must recognize individual differences among his/her students and adjust instructions that best suit to the learners. It is always a fact that as educators, we play varied and vital roles in the classroom. Teachers are considered the light in the classroom. We are entrusted with so many responsibilities that range from the very simple to most complex and very challenging jobs. Everyday we encounter them as part of the work or mission that we are in. It is very necessary that we need to understand the need to be motivated in doing our work well, so as to have motivated learners in the classroom. When students are motivated, then learning will easily take place. However, motivating students to learn requires a very challenging role on the part of the teacher. It requires a variety of teaching styles or techniques just to capture students' interests. Above all, the teacher must himself come into possession of adequate knowledge of the objectives and standards of the curriculum, skills in teaching, interests, appreciation and ideals. He needs to exert effort to lead children or students into a life that is large, full, stimulating and satisfying. Some students seem naturally enthusiastic about learning, but many need or expect their instructors or teachers to inspire, challenge or stimulate them. "Effective learning in the classroom depends on the teacher's ability to maintain the interest that brought students to the course in the first place (Erickson, 1978). Not all students are motivated by the same values, needs, desires and wants. Some students are motivated by the approval of others or by overcoming challenges.
Since 2003, many foreign professional teachers, particularly from the Philippines, came to New York City to teach with little knowledge of American school settings. Filipino teachers have distinct styles and expressions of teaching. They expect that: education is interactive and spontaneous; teachers and students work together in the teaching-learning process; students learn through participation and interaction; homework is only part of the process; teaching is an active process; students are not passive learners; factual information is readily available; problem solving, creativity and critical thinking are more important; teachers should facilitate and model problem solving; students learn by being actively engaged in the process; and teachers need to be questioned and challenged. However, many Filipino teachers encountered many difficulties in teaching in NYC public schools. Some of these problems may be attributed to: students' behavior such as attention deficiency, hyperactivity disorder, and disrespect among others; and language barriers such as accent and poor understanding of languages other than English (e.g. Spanish).
Furthermore, researchers have begun to identify some aspects of the teaching situation that help enhance students' motivation. Research made by Lucas (1990), Weinert and Kluwe (1987) show that several styles could be employed by the teachers to encourage students to become self motivated independent learners. As identified, teachers must give frequent positive feedback that supports students' beliefs that they can do well; ensure opportunities for students' success by assigning tasks that are either too easy nor too difficult; help students find personal meaning and value in the material; and help students feel that they are valued members of a learning community. According to Brock (1976), Cashin (1979) and Lucas (1990), it is necessary for teachers to work from students' strengths and interests by finding out why students are in your class and what are their expectations. Therefore it is important to take into consideration students' needs and interests so as to focus instruction that is applicable to different groups of students with different levels.
For student motivation-grades, 65% got good grades in Science. 65% of the respondents said that they study their lessons before a test or a quiz. More than half of the respondents disagreed that the terms or words used in the test were difficult to understand. Less than half of the respondents agreed tests measure their understanding of Science concepts and knowledge, while 80% thought that grading is fair. On the other hand, the data under teaching style as noted on table 4 showed that 65% of the students strongly agreed that they have a good relationship with their Science teacher and no one disagreed. 75% noted that their Science teachers used materials that were easy to understand. 60% said that their teachers presented the lessons in many ways. More than half of the students said that they understood the way their Science teachers explained the lesson while 25% were not sure of their answer. 75% said that they got feedback from their Science teacher.
This chapter provides guidance, ideas and resources to assess the integration of technology into a school or district's instructional and management practices. Infusing a school with technology can be a transforming experience: the potential exists to change almost every aspect of school operations, and much of teaching and learning. Applications of technology in practice are examined through key questions, indicators, and measures for technology integration in the school setting.
Three key questions deal with the incorporation of technology into teaching and learning standards, into student assessment, and into evaluations of instructional and administrative staff. It can truly be said that technology is integrated into schools when technology proficiencies and practices are incorporated into the fabric of the organization-the processes by which educational goals are set and promotions are determined.
As with Key Question 5 (on the incorporation of technology-related items into teaching standards), this key question addresses an issue that represents the incorporation of technology into the institutional fabric of school systems. There is no better driver of technology integration (or, at least, incorporation) into classrooms than the inclusion of technology-related dimensions or items in teacher evaluations; the same notion applies to administrators and support staff.
Ryerson University in Toronto is another institution with extensive use of experiential learning, and also has an extensive web site on the topic, also directed at instructors. The next section examines different ways in which these principles have been applied.
Certainly, experiential learning approaches require considerable re-structuring of teaching and a great deal of detailed planning if the curriculum is to be fully covered. It usually means extensive re-training of faculty, and careful orientation and preparation of students. I would also agree with Kirschner et al. that just giving students tasks to do in real world situations without guidance and support is likely to be ineffective.
Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is a teaching method in which complex real-world problems are used as the vehicle to promote student learning of concepts and principles as opposed to direct presentation of facts and concepts. In addition to course content, PBL can promote the development of critical thinking skills, problem-solving abilities, and communication skills. It can also provide opportunities for working in groups, finding and evaluating research materials, and life-long learning (Duch et al, 2001).
The elements of a design should be viewed as moving parts that combine to tell a story. As you approach your design project you must first familiarize yourself with these principles of design. Only then will you be able to break these graphic design rules to create your own signature style. 2b1af7f3a8