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NetworkMiner Professional can be delivered either as an Electronic Software Download (ESD) or shipped physically on a USB flash drive. The product is exactly the same, regardless of delivery method. NetworkMiner is a portable application that doesn't require any installation, which means that the USB version can be run directly from the USB flash drive. However, we recommend that you copy NetworkMiner to the local hard drive of your computer in order to achieve maximum performance.
When the SSL protocol was standardized by the IETF, it was renamed to Transport Layer Security (TLS). Many use the TLS and SSL names interchangeably, but technically, they are different, since each describes a different version of the protocol.
SSL 2.0 was the first publicly released version of the protocol, but it was quickly replaced by SSL 3.0 due to a number of discovered security flaws. Because the SSL protocol was proprietary to Netscape, the IETF formed an effort to standardize the protocol, resulting in RFC 2246, which became known as TLS 1.0 and is effectively an upgrade to SSL 3.0:
Since the publication of TLS 1.0 in January 1999, two new versions have been produced by the IETF working group to address found security flaws, as well as to extend the capabilities of the protocol: TLS 1.1 in April 2006 and TLS 1.2 in August 2008. Internally the SSL 3.0 implementation, as well as all subsequent TLS versions, are very similar, and many clients continue to support SSL 3.0 and TLS 1.0 to this day, although there are very good reasons to upgrade to newer versions to protect users from known attacks!
Before the client and the server can begin exchanging application data over TLS, the encrypted tunnel must be negotiated: the client and the server must agree on the version of the TLS protocol, choose the ciphersuite, and verify certificates if necessary. Unfortunately, each of these steps requires new packet roundtrips (Figure 4-2) between the client and the server, which adds startup latency to all TLS connections.
With the TCP connection in place, the client sends a number of specifications in plain text, such as the version of the TLS protocol it is running, the list of supported ciphersuites, and other TLS options it may want to use.
Assuming both sides are able to negotiate a common version and cipher, and the client is happy with the certificate provided by the server, the client initiates either the RSA or the Diffie-Hellman key exchange, which is used to establish the symmetric key for the ensuing session.
An HTTPS session could, of course, reuse the HTTP Upgrade mechanism to perform the require negotiation, but this would result in another full roundtrip of latency. What if we could negotiate the protocol as part of the TLS handshake itself?
ALPN is a revised and IETF approved version of the NPN extension. In NPN, the server advertised which protocols it supports, and the client then chose and confirmed the protocol. In ALPN, this exchange was reversed: the client now specifies which protocols it supports, and the server then selects and confirms the protocol. The rationale for the change is that this brings ALPN into closer alignment with other protocol negotiation standards.
Unfortunately, many older clients (e.g., most IE versions running on Windows XP, Android 2.2, and others) do not support SNI. As a result, if you need to provide TLS to these older clients, then you may need a dedicated IP address for each and every host.
The extra latency and computational costs of the full TLS handshake impose a serious performance penalty on all applications that require secure communication. To help mitigate some of the costs, TLS provides an ability to resume or share the same negotiated secret key data between multiple connections.
Leveraging session identifiers allows us to remove a full roundtrip, as well as the overhead of public key cryptography, which is used to negotiate the shared secret key. This allows a secure connection to be established quickly and with no loss of security, since we are reusing the previously negotiated session data.
None of the preceding problems are impossible to solve, and many high-traffic sites are using session identifiers successfully today. But for any multiserver deployment, session identifiers will require some careful thinking and systems architecture to ensure a well operating session cache.
Speaking of optimizing CPU cycles, make sure to upgrade your SSL libraries to the latest release, and build your web server or proxy against them! For example, recent versions of OpenSSL have made significant performance improvements, and chances are your system default OpenSSL libraries are outdated.
The connection setup latency imposed on every TLS connection, new or resumed, is an important area of optimization. First, recall that every TCP connection begins with a three-way handshake (explained in Three-Way Handshake), which takes a full roundtrip for the SYN/SYN-ACK packets. Following that, the TLS handshake (explained in TLS Handshake) requires up to two additional roundtrips for the full process, or one roundtrip if an abbreviated handshake (explained in Optimizing TLS handshake with Session Resumption and False Start) can be used.
In the worst case, before any application data can be exchanged, the TCP and TLS connection setup process will take three roundtrips! Following our earlier example of a client in New York and the server in London, with a roundtrip time of 56 milliseconds (Table 1-1), this translates to 168 milliseconds of latency for a full TCP and TLS setup, and 112 milliseconds for a TLS session that is resumed. Even worse, the higher the latency between the peers, the worse the penalty, and 56 milliseconds is definitely an optimistic number. 2b1af7f3a8