Capacitive field-effect electrolyte-diamond-insulator-semiconductor (EDIS) structures with O-terminated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) as sensitive gate material have been realized and investigated for the detection of pH, penicillin concentration, and layer-by-layer adsorption of polyelectrolytes. The surface oxidizing procedure of NCD thin films as well as the seeding and NCD growth process on a Si-SiO2 substrate have been improved to provide high pH-sensitive, non-porous thin films without damage of the underlying SiO2 layer and with a high coverage of O-terminated sites. The NCD surface topography, roughness, and coverage of the surface groups have been characterized by SEM, AFM and XPS methods. The EDIS sensors with O-terminated NCD film treated in oxidizing boiling mixture for 45 min show a pH sensitivity of about 50 mV/pH. The pH-sensitive properties of the NCD have been used to develop an EDIS-based penicillin biosensor with high sensitivity (65-70 mV/decade in the concentration range of 0.25-2.5 mM penicillin G) and low detection limit (5 μM). The results of label-free electrical detection of layer-by-layer adsorption of charged polyelectrolytes are presented, too.
X-ray topography data are compared with photodiode responsivity maps to identify potential candidates for electron trapping in high purity, single crystal diamond. X-ray topography data reveal the defects that exist in the diamond material, which are dominated by non-electrically active linear dislocations. However, many diamonds also contain defects configurations (groups of threading dislocations originating from a secondary phase region or inclusion) in the bulk of the wafer which map well to regions of photoconductive gain, indicating that these inclusions are a source of electron trapping which affect the performance of diamond X-ray detectors. It was determined that photoconductive gain is only possible with the combination of an injecting contact and charge trapping in the near surface region. Typical photoconductive gain regions are 0.2 mm across; away from these near-surface inclusions the device yields the expected diode responsivity. 2b1af7f3a8