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Objective: Dry eye, a chronic disease of lachrymal fluid and corneo-conjunctival epithelium, could significantly impact visual function, affects quality of life and work productivity. Beside several conventional treatments, nutritional supplements based on bilberry extract have been identified as effective contributors to eye health. Here, we aim at investigating the bioavailability of a standardized bilberry extract, its ability to alleviate dry eye symptoms and its antioxidant potential.
Materials and methods: Either bilberry dried standardized extract derived from Vaccinium myrtillus L. fresh frozen fruits (Mirtoselect®) or a highly purified anthocyanin-rich extract, devoid of the non anthocyanin component and supported on maltodextrins, were each orally administrated to 5 male rats. Blood samples were collected at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 minutes after treatment, processed and analyzed by UV spectrophotometric method. In a parallel analysis, 22 otherwise healthy subjects suffering from dry eye symptoms were enrolled randomly assigned to receive the more bioavailable bilberry extract or placebo. Ophthalmological and clinical examinations including Schirmer's test, pupil constriction, diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) test and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) test were performed at inclusion and after the 4-week study period.
Results: The area under the curve of plasmatic levels of anthocyanosides in rats resulted 202.34±24.23 µg·min/ml for Mirtoselect® and 130.93±4.93 µg·min/ml for the highly purified anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract, notwithstanding the fact that the highly purified anthocyanin-rich extract group received an anthocyanins dosage much higher than the Mirtoselect® group (354 mg/Kg in anthocyanosides vs. 136 mg/Kg in anthocyanosides). 21 subjects, 11 subjects in the bilberry extract (Mirtoselect®) group and 10 subjects in the placebo group completed the clinical study. Schirmer's test values indicating the volume of tear secretion were significantly improved in the bilberry extract group (p=0.019), whereas no significant changes were observed in the placebo group. A subset analysis revealed that Mirtoselect® could be more effective in subjects with higher tendency of dry eye. In terms of antioxidant potential, the bilberry extract produced significant improvement of BAP (p=0.003) and an increase of modified BAP/d-ROMs ratio, an indicator of overall balance between antioxidant potential and oxidative stress.
Conclusions: Our results suggested that natural, standardized bilberry extract (Mirtoselect®) is a natural more bioavailable delivery form anthocyanins, suggesting a strong matrix effect exerted by the non-anthocyanin component. Furthermore, it can improve tear secretion and plasmatic antioxidant potential in subjects suffering from DED symptoms.
It is not certain whether bilberry is effective in treating any medical condition. Medicinal use of this product has not been approved by the FDA. Bilberry should not be used in place of medication prescribed for you by your doctor.
If you choose to use bilberry, use it as directed on the package or as directed by your doctor, pharmacist, or other healthcare provider. Do not use more of this product than is recommended on the label.
Avoid using bilberry together with other herbal/health supplements that can also lower your blood sugar. This includes devil's claw, fenugreek, garlic, guar gum, horse chestnut, Panax ginseng, psyllium, Siberian ginseng, and others.
Avoid using bilberry together with other herbal/health supplements that can also affect blood-clotting. This includes angelica (dong quai), capsicum, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, horse chestnut, Panax ginseng, poplar, red clover, turmeric, and willow.
This list is not complete. Other drugs may interact with bilberry, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Not all possible interactions are listed in this product guide.
Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) is one of the richest natural sources of anthocyanins. These polyphenolic components give bilberry its blue/black color and high antioxidant content, and they are believed to be the key bioactives responsible for the many reported health benefits of bilberry and other berry fruits. Although bilberry is promoted most commonly for improving vision, it has been reported to lower blood glucose, to have anti-inflammatory and lipid-lowering effects, and to promote antioxidant defense and lower oxidative stress. Therefore, bilberry is of potential value in the treatment or prevention of conditions associated with inflammation, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia or increased oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, diabetes, and dementia and other age-related diseases. There are also reports that bilberry has antimicrobial activity. In this chapter, bilberry and its components and characteristics are described, and evidence for the health benefits of bilberry is presented and discussed.
Dwarf bilberry is the host plant for the northern blue butterfly, Lycaeides [Plebejus] idas nabokovi. The subspecies was named for the novelist Vladimir Nabokov, who was also an entomologist specializing the the tribe of butterflies to which the blues belong. The northern blue is listed as endandered in Wisconsin, threatened in Michigan, and special concern in Minnesota. In the Great Lakes area, northern blue caterpillars only consume dwarf bilberry although adult butterflies also use other plants. Some surveyors key in on the presence of the butterfly to find the easily overlooked bilberry mats.
Native to Europe and the British Isles, Vaccinium myrtillus is known as the European blueberry. Bilberry, sometimes spelled billberry, produces flavorful blue berries that are enjoyed alone and also applied in traditional European herbalism. A healthful addition to any recipe, bilberry fruit can be used in infusions, smoothies, baking recipes, trail mixes, and granola. Bilberries can also be macerated in liqueurs, vinegars, and syrups.
Also known as "Black Hearts" according to Thomas Hardy in his 1878 novel The Return of the Native, the European bilberry bush is a close relative of American blueberries, cranberries, and huckleberries. It flourishes in damp acidic soil throughout temperate and sub-arctic regions of the world. The bilberry has a long history of traditional use. The English used it as a dye for wool due to its wonderful dark blue/purple coloring. Additional common names include huckleberry and whortleberry.
Jarrow Formulas® Bilberry + Grapeskin Polyphenols is a synergistic blend of standardized flavonoid antioxidants.* The Swedish bilberry extract contains 25% polyphenols as anthocyanosides. The red grapeskin extract contains 30% polyphenols, including anthocyanins. These flavonoids support the integrity of the capillaries and other blood vessels in the eyes.*
Paradise bilberry formula is a potent concentration. Using a 100% natural extraction method the true essence and breadth of the whole herb is captured therefore retaining all of its active and synergistic constituents in the balanced ratio nature intended.
Founded in Paris, France in 2016, Bilberry's mission is to help growers dramatically reduce the amount of chemicals sprayed on crops while improving the quality of their crop production and profitability. Using artificial intelligence and deep learning technology, Bilberry transforms crop protection by spraying at the plant level, instead of field level. In a world where broadcast spraying is no longer a viable option, Bilberry offers farmers an alternative solution by targeting and spraying weeds locally. The company's intelligent agriculture systems turn sprayers into smart engines that spray weeds directly without damaging crops. From green-on-brown to green-on-green applications, Bilberry's precision agriculture technology helps farmers control weed at various stages of growth. For more information, visit: www.bilberry.io.
Bilberries are a low-growing deciduous shrub that can be easily confused with blueberries. Most people can easily distinguish them from blueberries only when the berries are in season. Bilberries and blueberries may look similar on the outside; however, blueberry fruit pulp is light green in color, bilberry fruit pulp is red or purple.
The bilberry shrub tends to prefer young and grove-like forest heaths and swamps, yet they can occur in drier areas also. They also are found in acidic, nutrient-poor soils throughout the temperate, arctic, and subarctic regions of the world. Bilberries are one of the most common coniferous forest dwarf shrubs. Bilberries do not like heat.
Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) fruits are an excellent natural resource for human diet because of their special flavor, taste and nutritional value as well as medical properties. Bilberries are recognized for their high anthocyanin content and many of the genes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis have been characterized. So far, neither genomic nor RNA-seq data have been available for the species. In the present study, we de novo sequenced two bilberry fruit developmental stages, unripe green (G) and ripening (R). A total of 57,919 unigenes were assembled of which 80.2% were annotated against six public protein databases. The transcriptome served as exploratory data to identify putative transcription factors related to fruit ripening. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between G and R stages were prominently upregulated in R stage with the functional annotation indicating their main roles in active metabolism and catalysis. The unigenes encoding putative ripening-related regulatory genes, including members of NAC, WRKY, LOB, ERF, ARF and ABI families, were analysed by qRT-PCR at five bilberry developmental stages. Our de novo transcriptome database contributes to the understanding of the regulatory network associated with the fruit ripening in bilberry and provides the first dataset for wild Vaccinium species acquired by NGS technology. 2b1af7f3a8