A History Of Western Society Mckay Testbank.pdf | Temp
Citation: Beyene MT, Leibowitz SG, Snyder M, Ebersole JL, Almquist VW (2022) Variable wildfire impacts on the seasonal water temperatures of western US streams: A retrospective study. PLoS ONE 17(7): e0268452.
Here we have focused on potential changes in stream water temperature from wildfire, but thermal regime change is only one of many transformations to stream habitat following wildfire [e.g., [8, 66, 67]]. Ultimately, the response of salmonid populations to post-fire thermal regimes will depend on the ecoregion, seasonal pattern, life history, behavioural adaption potential, and the concurrent changes in sediment regime, channel structure, water quality parameters, and other biota, as well as the connectivity and location of the site within the stream network [8, 66, 68]. To fully appreciate wildfire impacts on salmonid populations, a fuller accounting of these myriad processes is needed.
Empirical assessments on the post-fire response of water temperatures across seasons, stream reaches, and watersheds help inform water resources managers that are concerned about wildfire impact on thermally sensitive fishes. In this study, we assessed the effect of wildfire burns in the Boulder Creek (Oregon), Elk Creek (Oregon), and Gibbon River (Wyoming) watersheds on the downstream water temperatures during the winter and summer seasons. To get results independent of the choice of approach, we employed three independent analytical method that use local water temperature data to evaluate the consequence of each burn on seasonal water temperatures. Our results indicate that for Boulder Creek and Gibbon River watersheds, wildfire burns were associated with the warming of summer water temperatures and the cooling of winter water temperatures in downstream sites. In contrast, the watershed burn at Elk Creek watershed did not correspond to substantial winter or summer water temperature changes, and the absence of any effect at this site was primarily related to the distance of the site from burned riparian areas. The use of analytical approaches that utilize local data allows the assessment of wildfire burn effects on stream water temperatures for other burned western US sites.
Hurricane Hugo was one of the strongest hurricanes in South Carolina's history, and was at the time the most costly hurricane ever in the Atlantic Ocean. Hugo's destruction wasn't limited to just South Carolina; Hugo also devastated the Caribbean Islands of Guadeloupe, St. Croix, and Puerto Rico, and even seven hours after its final landfall still produced hurricane-force winds across the western Piedmont and foothills of North Carolina. In all, Hugo was responsible for at least 86 fatalities and caused at least $8 to $10 billion in damage [unadjusted 1989 dollars; some sources quote higher damage and fatality statistics].
Invasion and increase of western juniper and Colorado pinyon onlow sagebrush sites has been a result of livestock grazing and decreasing firefrequency . Burkhardt and Tisdale  investigated the fire history of abig sagebrush/gray low sagebrush mosaic habitat on the Owyhee plateau of Idaho.Between 1840 and 1910 mean fire interval was about 4 years (the authors did notseparate the 2 habitats in analysis). Of the 4 sites studied, 2 had not burnedsince 1910, and 2 had burned once. Western juniper invasion of these habitatsbegan in about 1870, increased with fire cessation, and peaked in about 1940. Though fire is not the only control over invasion, it is estimated thatin northern California in low sagebrush habitats a fire interval of 50 years would stopencroachment .
Fire history information of sagebrush habitats is often limited .Miller and Rose  described fire history of a low sagebrush steppe in south-central Oregon by determining the years in whichwestern juniperhad died from fire injury. Before 1897 mean fire intervals ranged from 12 to 15years with intervals ranging from 3 to 28 years. Fire generallyoccurred after years of high radial growth rates (measured in western juniper),indicating that fires occurred during wet years with high forage production, andthemost recent fire was 1897. In Lassen County, California, firehistory was constructed by observing scar analysis on invading western juniper. The western junipers observed had established in a low sagebrushcommunity between 1600 and 1800 and persist now with a density of 69 trees peracre (28 trees/ha). Fire was evidently sporadic temporally and spatially: only 0.4% ofwestern juniper had fire scars. Some had multiple scars indicating that fireswere very small and/or patchy with returnintervals that ranged from 10 to 90 years .
Very cold temperatures are ahead for the Sierra and western Nevada behind the storm on Monday afternoon, according to NWS forecasters. Clearing skies, light winds, snow-covered areas and strong inversions will result in well below normal daytime highs and overnight low temperatures. Highs in western Nevada will be in the 30s, with morning lows in the teens. In the colder valleys of the Sierra, morning lows will drop into the single digits and even below zero.
It is quite obvious that PBS loves to rub Nazis in our faces, every time we turn around, and I for one am sick to death of it. What is also quite obvious is that bashing Nazis has become a regular pastime on PBS and I'm uncertain as to exactly why, unless it's because there's so much influence by pro-Jewish elements of American society at PBS who are behind this. In the present decade of American progressive 'Democratic identity-socialism', it appears to be conveniently overlooked that Hitler's execrable transgressions against humanity were and have been far exceeded by a full century of Soviet/Russian Communist barbarity (whose victims number in the hundreds of millions)! There have been innumerable, equally despicable villains (AKA: mass-murderers) in the past several thousand years of human history...Napoleon, Ghengiz Khan, Mao Zhedong, Pol Pot...the list is practically endless...but whom do we chose to trot out of the closet of horrors every week? Why, those lovable, ultimate mega-monsters, the German National Socialists!
I understand that people leaning left or right on the political scale can see bias in reporting and interviewing. I have watched the PBS Newshour on and off for many years and I sense a shift in reporting to the left. For example, following a final report on the unsuccessful impeachment proceedings against the president in late January and February, a PBS Newshour reporter stated that another House Committee would soon launch another inquiry into the president. To which Ms. Woodruff replied forcefully with a smile, "You bet!" This seemed to imply that she wholeheartedly supported yet another attempt oust the president. I thought that was uncalled for and showed extraordinary bias unbecoming a journalist. This is but one example of what I hear regularly on the program. Ms. Woodruff seems to go to great lengths to be harsh and almost uncivil in tone, demeanor and line of questioning of anyone from the Republican side of the political spectrum compared to the softer tone and line of questioning with anyone on the Democratic side and I do not believe I am imagining it. I have seen this in her interviews with the Senator from Wyoming vs. NY's Schumer or Speaker Pelosi. She impatiently interrupts the Republican, not allowing the person to completely answer the question, while letting the Democrat talk on and on without interruption. This results in a different impression of the interviewee, negative as to the Republican and positive for the Democrat. The day to day reporting seems, by implication, to lay the blame for every event at the feet of the current administration, be it a weather event or a racial confrontation or a gun related situation. I get a "gotta" feeling when I watch the Newshour. What I want, and so many other people too, is balanced and fair reporting that the newshour advertises. Reading the CPB viewer comment section, many people do not feel that the PBS Newshour offers balanced, fair reporting. Many Americans do not seem to trust in the news they are receiving from PBS Newshour that is funded, in part, by the taxpayer and viewers. I am one of them. I have found the Wall Street Journal to be far more balanced and educational in the presentation on issues of the day with well written columns and editorials. The news coverage is better too, with reports from many places around the world, rather than touchy feely articles that are weak on information. The WSJ leans conservative, but it provides a forum for differing views, such as a column by Rahm Emanuel on why Biden would be a president for change and Trump is a disrupter, or the column on the background of Harris' mother, a Tamil Brahmin, from a culture that highly values education, who was forced to leave India due to quota systems for employment. This explains why Harris as SF DA prosecuted parents of truant children. She values education too. It's a pity she has been reviled by the black community for this effort. Without an education, there is no hope of becoming a contributing member of our society. What I seek in the news is a variety of opinion and wide range reporting so I can form my own opinions. The PBS Newshour does not measure up and in fact it is a disappointment. Another PBS program, Amanpour and Company is equally disappointing and is even more biased in its presentations. Recently, the program had as guests, the Lt Governor or Michigan (democrat) and the woman who started Republicans against Trump, to discuss the upcoming election in the battleground state. There was no interview with a Republican or a group that is against Biden. There was no balance in the program. Why do you continue to carry such a one-sided excuse for journalism? Ms. Amanpour seems to have abandoned any standards of journalism in her programs and they should be offered as commentary and entertainment. She is reputed to have said, "when you are neutral, you are an accomplice." This should not be the position of a journalist and yet the PBS Newshour program and Amanpour and Company appear to be anything but neutral. 2b1af7f3a8